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                                                                        HONEY BEES


TYPES OF BEES

 

APIS MELLIFERRA :-

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The European honey bee also known as the common or western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is so named because it produces large amounts of honey. Apis meaning  ‘bee’ and mellifera meaning  ‘honey bearing’. It is believed that the honey bee originated in Africa and spread to northern Europe, India and China.

  • They are also similar in habits to Indian bees, which build parallel combs. They are bigger than all other honeybees except Apis Dorsata . The average production per colony is 25-40 kg. They have been imported from European countries (Italy). They are less prone to swarming and absconding.

 

APIS DORSATA :-      uoli

 

Apis Dorsata, the giant honey bee/rock bee, is a honey bee of southern and southeastern Asia mainly in forested areas like India,Terai of Nepal. The subspecies with the largest individuals is the Himalayan cliff honey bee — Apis Dorsata Laboriosa — but typical Apis Dorsata workers from other subspecies are around 17–20 millimetres (0.7–0.8 in) long.

They are giant bees found all over India in sub-mountainous regions up to an altitude of 2700 m. They construct single comb in open about 6 feet long and 3 feet deep .They shift the place of the colony often. Rock bees are ferocious and difficult to rear. They produce about 36 Kg honey per comb per year. These bees are the largest among the bees described.

 

APIS CERANA:-               i9oki                                      

Apis Cerana, or the Asiatic honey bee (or the Eastern honey bee), is a species of honey bee found in southern and southeastern Asia, such as ChinaPakistanIndiaKoreaJapanMalaysiaNepalBangladesh and Papua New Guinea. This species is the sister species of Apis Koschevnikovi , and both are in the same subgenus as the Western (European) honey bee.

  • Apis cerana indica is a subspecies of honey bee. A. c. indica is one of the important pollinating agents for coconut palms.
  •  They are the domesticated species, which construct multiple parallel combs with an average honey yield of 6-8 kg per colony per year. These bees are larger than Apis Florae  but smaller than Apis Mellifera . They are more prone to swarming and absconding. They are native of India/Asia.

 

APIS FLOREA :-             6u776

The dwarf honey bee (or red dwarf honey bee), Apis florea, is one of two species of small, wild honey bees of southern and southeastern Asia. It has a much wider distribution than its sister speciesApis andreniformis.

  • They build single vertical combs. They also construct comb in open of the size of palm in branches of bushes, hedges, buildings, caves, empty cases etc (Fig. 2). They produce about half a kilo of honey per year per hive. They are not rearable as they frequently change their place. The size of the bees is smallest among four Apis species described and smaller than Indian bee. They distribute only in plains and not in hills above 450 MSL.

 

MELIPONA – STINGLESS BEES :-           65u765

Stingless bees, sometimes called stingless honey bees or simply meliponines, are a large group of bees (approximately 500 species), comprising the tribe Meliponini (or subtribe Meliponina according to other authors). They belong in the family Apidae, and are closely related to common honey beescarpenter beesorchid bees and bumblebees. The common name is slightly misleading as male bees and bees of other species, such as those in the family Andrenidae, cannot sting. Meliponines have stingers, but they are highly reduced and cannot be used for defense.

  • Besides true honey bees, two species of stingless or dammer bees, viz. Melipona and Trigona occur in our country in abundance. These bees are much smaller than the true honey bees and build irregular combs of wax and resinous substances in crevices and hollow tree trunks. The stingless bees have the importance in the pollination of various food crops. They bite their enemies or intruders. It can be domesticated. But the honey yield per hive per year is only 100 gms.